나는 유전적으로 엄마를 더 닮았을까 아빠를 더 닮았을까 Are you genetically more similar to your mom or your dad?

Are you genetically more similar to your mom or your dad?

By Isobel Whitcomb - Live Science Contributor 16 hours ago

The answer isn't 50/50.

"He's the spitting image of his dad!" Or: "She's her mom's clone — except for the nose. Clearly from her father's side of the family." As we watch kids grow up, we tend to look for likenesses between them and their parents. So which parent contributes more genetically?

The answer depends on whether you're asking about the total number of genes a kid inherits from mom and dad, or which parents' genes are actually doing more. But either way, scientists think that the answer isn't exactly 50/50.



나는 유전적으로 엄마를 더 닮았을까 아빠를 더 닮았을까

  "그는 아버지를 꼭 닮았어!" 또는 "코만 빼고 엄마의 복제품이야. 분명히 그녀의 아버지 쪽에서." 우리는 아이들이 자라는 것을 볼 때, 그들과 그들의 부모 사이의 유사점을 찾는 경향이 있다. 그렇다면 어느 부모가 유전적으로 더 많은 기여를 할까?

답은 아이가 엄마 아빠로부터 물려받은 유전자의 총수를 묻는 것인지, 아니면 실제로 어떤 부모의 유전자가 더 많은 일을 하고 있는지에 따라 달라진다. 하지만 어느 쪽이든 과학자들은 그 답이 정확히 50대 50은 아니라고 생각한다.

예를 들어, 대부분의 사람들은 유전자가 23개의 X형 또는 Y형 염색체로 포장된 DNA 가닥에 실려 있다는 것을 알고 있다. 이것들은 세포핵 안에 들어있으며, 그 안에 들어 있는 DNA는 양쪽 부모로부터 동등하게 얻어진다. 하지만 이 세포는 실제로 미토콘드리아 안에 숨어 있는 다른 염색체를 포함하고 있다. 미토콘드리아(mitochondria) 또는 세포의 '파워하우스(powerhouse)'는 세포의 에너지를 생산하고 운동과 노화에 중요한 역할을 한다고 <생리학적 게놈>지 2011년 리뷰가 밝혔다. 미토콘드리아는 또한 그들만의 DNA 세트를 가지고 있다. 그리고 우리는 그것을 엄마로부터만 물려받는다.

킹스 칼리지 런던의 유전학자 마리카 차랄람부스는 "그것은 당신이 아버지보다 어머니와 더 닮았다는 명백한 예"라고 말했다.

몇몇 연구는 우리의 미토콘드리아 DNA, 즉 엄마가 우리의 운동 지구력에 중요한 역할을 한다는 것을 시사한다. 예를 들어, 스페인과 이스라엘의 과학자들은 운동 중에 우리가 사용할 수 있는 산소 세포의 양과 관련이 있는 하나의 미토콘드리아 유전자를 조사했다. 2005년 응용생리학저널(Journal of Applied Physiology)에 게재된 이들의 연구는 체력이 떨어지는 유전자의 변종이 일반인에 비해 엘리트 사이클 선수와 달리기 선수들에게 덜 빈번하다는 것을 밝혀냈으며, 그 결과는 나중의 연구에 의해 확인되었다. 일련의 연구는 이것과 다른 유전자의 유전자에서 엄마의 중요성을 집에 가져왔다. 그들은 엄마의 운동 능력만으로도 아빠를 고려할 때보다 아이의 능력을 더 잘 예측할 수 있다는 것을 발견했다.

황기철 콘페이퍼 에디터

Ki Chul Hwang Conpaper editor curator

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For example, most people know that genes are carried on strands of DNA that are packaged into 23 X- or Y-shaped chromosomes. Those autosomes are housed inside a cell's nucleus, and the DNA they contain comes equally from both of our parents. But the cell actually contains one other chromosome — hiding inside the mitochondria. The mitochondria, or the "powerhouse" of the cell, produces a cell's energy and plays an important role in exercise and aging, according to a 2011 review published in the journal Physiological Genomes. The mitochondria also has its own set of DNA — and we inherit it only from our mom.

"That's a clear example that you're more similar to your mum than your dad," said Marika Charalambous, a geneticist at King's College London. 

Some studies suggest that our mitochondrial DNA — and therefore our mom — plays a key role in our athletic endurance. For example, Spanish and Israeli scientists looked at one mitochondrial gene, which is associated with the amount of oxygen cells we can use during exercise. Their study, which was published in 2005 in the Journal of Applied Physiology, found that a variant of the gene associated with lower fitness was less frequent in elite cyclists and runners than in the general population, a result confirmed by later studies. A series of studies brought home the importance of moms in the inheritance of this and other genes. They found that a mother's capacity for exercise alone can better predict a child's capacity, than when fathers are taken into account.

But instead of asking which parent contributes more genes, you might ask which parent's genes do more. Most of the surface-level differences we see between people are not due to the genes themselves, but to a series of chemical "switches" that sit on top of our DNA and tell our body which portions to read and translate into protein and which to ignore, Charambalous told Live Science. "There's a whole level of genetic variation between people that's not just the sequences of the genes," Charambalous said. 

In a phenomenon called imprinting, these switches entirely shut off certain genes — but only when they come from a particular parent. These patterns persist across generations. For example, if gene 'A' is paternally imprinted, it will always work if it comes from your mom, but never if it comes from your dad. Most studies suggest there are between 100 and 200 imprinted genes in the body, but some research suggests there could be more, according to a 2012 article published in the journal PLOS Genetics. These genes are particularly important in the brain and the placenta. 

Scientists Reveal Which Genes Come From Your Mom and Which You Get From Your Dad


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There's some disagreement as to whether imprinting biases gene expression toward one parent or another. Evidence suggests that there are similar numbers of maternal and paternal imprinted genes, said Andrew Ward, a geneticist at the University of Bath in England. "In the traits which imprinting genes are responsible for, in a sense you are likely to be more like one parent than another," Ward told Live Science. In other words, imprinting may have an affect on certain traits — from our body size to sleep and memory. But because imprinting happens on relatively few genes and those genes are likely balanced between parents, imprinting isn't going to determine whether you have a striking likeness to mom versus dad, Ward said. 

But studies in mice do suggest that there might be some imbalance favoring fathers in this regard. A 2015 study published in the journal Nature Genetics found that imprinted genes were 1.5 times more likely to be silent on the mom's side and active on the dad's side.An earlier study published in 2008 in the journal PLOS ONE found a similar result. In the brain, the majority of imprinted genes were active when they came from the father. The opposite was true in the placenta. However, there's no evidence, at least not yet, that such an imbalance happens in humans.

But even if imprinted genes bias gene expression from one parent over the other, it wouldn't necessarily make you more similar to that parent. After all, the gene that's active in you might be silent in them, said Edward Chuong, a genome biologist at the University of Colorado Boulder.

"You can say it [your gene expression] is thanks to your parents," Chuong told Live Science, "But it's complicated to say it's similar to your parents."

Originally published on Live Science.