고대 이집트 네페르티티 여왕의 10가지 사실들 VIDEO: 10 Facts About the Ancient Egyptian Queen Nefertiti


10 Facts About the Ancient Egyptian Queen Nefertiti

By Margherita Cole on November 24, 2019


The bust of Nefertiti is one of the most famous icons of Ancient Egypt, yet the queen herself is still shrouded in mystery and intrigue. As consort to Pharaoh Akhenaten, the couple ruled from 1353 to 1336 BCE during one of the most contentious periods of Egypt’s cultural history. At this time, Pharaoh Akhenaten remodeled Egypt’s religion around the worship of the sun god Aten and moved the empire’s capital to Amarna.


Bust of Nefertiti, Queen Consort of Akhenaten, 18th Dynasty, Egypt (Photo: Wikimedia Commons)


 

고대 이집트 네페르티티 여왕의 10가지 사실들


   네페르티티의 흉상은 고대 이집트의 가장 유명한 상징물 중 하나이지만, 여왕 자신은 여전히 신비와 음모에 휩싸여 있다. 파라오 아케나텐과 관련하여, 이 부부는 이집트 문화사에서 가장 논쟁이 많았던 시기 중 하나인 기원전 1353년부터 1336년까지 통치했다. 이때 파라오 아케나텐은 태양신 아텐의 숭배를 중심으로 이집트의 종교를 개조하여 제국의 수도를 아마르나로 옮겼다.





비록 파라오 자신은 아니지만, 네페르티티의 이름은 그녀가 아내와 여왕으로서 독특하게 영향력 있는 역할을 했기 때문에 지속되어 왔는데, 우리는 그녀를 살아 남은 묘사에서 볼 수 있다. 역사학자들은 네페르티티가 아케나텐의 종교적, 문화적 운동의 주요 지지자라고 생각해왔다. 그녀는 남편이 남성을 대표하는 동안 아텐의 여성적인 면을 대변했고, 둘 다 아텐과 이집트 국민 사이의 가교 역할을 했다. 네페르티티 흉상은 그녀의 특징적인 왕관 때문에 그녀의 유사성으로 확인되는데, 그녀는 이 왕관을 그녀에 대한 다른 모든 새겨진 묘사에 쓰고 있다. 석회암 조각은 기원전 1345년에 예술가 투트모세가 완성한 것으로 여겨졌다. 1912년 발견되자 이 초상화는 이상적인 여성미의 상징으로 네페르티티를 불멸시켰다.


* 네페르티티 (Nefertiti)

이집트 제18왕조의 파라오 아크나톤의 왕비이자, 투탕카멘의 이모이다. 이집트 귀족 출신으로 왕과 같이 태양신 아톤을 찬미했다. 위키백과


황기철 콘페이퍼 에디터 큐레이터

Ki Chul Hwang, conpaper editor, curator


edited by kcontents


Although not pharaoh herself, Nefertiti’s name has persisted because she held a uniquely influential role as wife and queen, which we see in surviving depictions of her. Historians have gleaned that Nefertiti was a major proponent of Akhenaten’s religious and cultural movement. She represented the female aspect of Aten while her husband represented the male—and both acted as a bridge between Aten and the Egyptian people. The Nefertiti bust is identified as her likeness because of the characteristic crown, which she wears in all other inscribed depictions of her. The limestone sculpture was believed to have been completed by the artist Thutmose in 1345 BCE. Upon its discovery in 1912, the portrait has immortalized Nefertiti as the symbol of ideal feminine beauty.




Despite the little surviving evidence we have of Nefertiti, there is enough to build a picture of the remarkable woman captured in the bust. To gain a more in-depth understanding of queen Nefertiti, read on to learn ten facts about her life.


Late Amarna-era relief depicting Nefertiti (Photo: Keith Schengili-Roberts via Wikimedia Commons)


Here are 10 facts about the Ancient Egyptian Queen Nefertiti.


NEFERTITI WAS A TEENAGE QUEEN.

Unsurprisingly for the era, Nefertiti was fifteen when she married sixteen-year-old Amunhotep IV. Five years into his reign, the pharaoh began his religious movement and renamed himself Akhenaten.


AKHENATEN AND NEFERTITI BUILT A NEW CITY.

With the foundation of their new monotheistic religion worshipping the sun god Aten, Nefertiti and Akhenaten further separated themselves from the “old reign” of Ancient Egypt and built a new capital city named Amarna.




NEFERTITI MIGHT HAVE BEEN OF ROYAL HERITAGE.

Nefertiti’s family tree is mostly conjecture with two prevailing theories. Some historians believe her father to be Ay, who was an important advisor to several pharaohs, including Nefertiti’s future husband. (Ay even became pharaoh himself after King Tut’s death in 1323 BCE.) Other academics speculate that Nefertiti was a princess from the Mittani kingdom in northern Syria.


We do know that Nefertiti had a sister named Mutbenret (or Mutnodjemet), who is mentioned in the surviving art of Amarna.


Statuette of Nefertiti and Akhenaten (Photo: Rama via Wikimedia Commons



 

SHE HELD MANY TITLES.

Like most royalty, Nefertiti held many titles during her time in power, including:


Hereditary Princess

Great of Praises

Lady of Grace

Sweet of Love

Lady of the Two Lands

Main King’s Wife

His beloved

Great King’s Wife

Lady of all Women

Mistress of Upper and Lower Egypt


Standing-striding figure of Nefertiti (Photo: Andreas Praefcke via Wikimedia Commons)




NEFERTITI LIVED UP TO HER NAME.

Nefertiti was born in 1370 BCE in the Egyptian city of Thebes. Her name in English means “the beautiful woman has come.” When she and her husband Akhenaten initiated the shift in Egypt’s religion, Nefertiti adopted the additional name of Neferneferuaten. Altogether, her full name means “beautiful are the beauties of Aten, a beautiful woman has come.” According to the bust she left behind, Nefertiti had beauty in spades.



SHE RULED OVER THE WEALTHIEST PERIOD OF ANCIENT EGYPTIAN HISTORY.

Akhenaten and Nefertiti ruled over the possibly wealthiest period in Ancient Egyptian history—which was perhaps the fuel to Akhenaten’s vision. During his reign, the new capital of Amarna achieved an artistic boom, distinct from any other era in Egypt. The Amarna style showed movement and figures of more exaggerated proportions, with elongated hands and feet. The depictions of Akhenaten during this time give him distinctly feminine attributes with wide hips and prominent breasts.


Nefertiti worshipping Aten (Photo: Jon Bodsworth via Wikimedia Commons)



SHE WAS A POWERFUL WIFE.

Nefertiti was the favored consort, or Great Royal Wife, of Akhenaten from the very start of his reign. According to historical records, Nefertiti had six daughters with Akhenaten by the names of Meritaten, Meketaten, Ankhes-en-pa-aten, Neferneferuaten-tasherit, Neferneferure, and Setepenre. Despite having no sons, the art of Amarna depicts the royal couple as having a strong, loving relationship. Nefertiti is also shown in a variety of roles, including driving chariots, attending ceremonial acts with Akhenaten, and smiting enemies.


Relief of Nefertiti and Akhenaten and Their Children

A house altar showing Akhenaten, Nefertiti and three of their daughters. (Photo via Wikimedia Commons)


SHE WAS BOTH LOVED AND LOATHED.

Although Nefertiti and Akhenaten governed over Ancient Egypt at a time of unprecedented wealth, their new religion unsettled the empire. As queen, Nefertiti was loved by some for her charisma and grace. However, she was also largely hated because of her active leadership in Akhenaten’s sun-oriented religion.


NEFERTITI POSSIBLY RULED AS PHARAOH AFTER HER HUSBAND’S DEATH.

The circumstances surrounding Nefertiti’s death are a mystery, as her name disappears from the historical record at about the 12th year of Akhenaten’s 17-year reign. A popular theory suggests that Nefertiti abandoned her old title at that point and became official co-regent under the name of Neferneferuaten.


Some also propose that Nefertiti is actually the pharaoh to follow Akenaten’s rule by renaming herself Smenkhkare. If true, Nefertiti adopted a similar position to the female pharaoh Hatshepsut, who ruled Egypt in the fashion of a king, wearing even the ceremonial false beard.


SHE IS “RELATED” TO KING TUT (BUT NOT BY BLOOD).

As Nefertiti had no sons of her own, the succeeding pharaoh Tutankhamun (or “King Tut”) was the son of Akhenaten and one of his lower consorts.


Funerary mask of Tutankhamun (Photo: Roland Unger, via Wikimedia Commons)

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