Plans for 7-km Batam-Bintan bridge project revived


source SkyscraperCity

edited by kcontents

JAKARTA - Indonesia has revived a plan to connect Batam and Bintan with a 7-km bridge as part of President Joko Widodo's plan to boost connectivity in Riau Islands province, also known as Kepri.

The project involves the construction of three links - from Batam to Pulau Tanjung Sauh, then on to Pulau Buau and finally to Bintan.

Kepri governor Nurdin Basirun told The Straits Times this week that among the companies that have submitted proposals for the project is Chinese state investment firm China Power Investment Corp.

"Of course, China Power was not the only investor interested in building this Batam-Bintan bridge; we have many other investors who submitted proposals," said Mr Nurdin.

"But we are evaluating all of them, with our main consideration being when the break-even period (for the project) will be."

The Batam-Bintan bridge was mooted by the Batam Industrial Development Authority in 2005.

A South Korean firm had expressed interest after a feasibility study was conducted in 2012, but the project did not take off and the local government has been trying to revive it ever since.

A new feasibility study is being done to evaluate the project, but Mr Nurdin stressed that the Kepri government will have to follow the lead of Jakarta. "This is a big project and I cannot decide on my own," he added. "It is a project under the BOT concept."

Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) is a form of project financing, where a company receives a concession to construct, own and operate a toll road, bridge, tunnel or other infrastructure project for a contracted period of time, before the ownership is transferred to the government.

It is not clear how much the project would cost. But past plans to call for a tender for the bridge put the cost at US$350 million (S$476 million) in 2009, according to media reports at the time.

When he was elected in 2014, President Joko, popularly known as Jokowi, had promised a strong push for infrastructure development to boost South-east Asia's largest economy as well as to improve connectivity in the country.

His government has been courting foreign investors, particularly from China and Japan, to support the energy and transport sectors.

China Railway Corp is a joint-venture partner with Indonesia in the US$6 billion Jakarta-Bandung high-speed rail link, while China Power and Anhui Conch Cement are major players in other infrastructure projects.

Mr Nurdin said he has told the President there must be strong political support for the bridge before it can be realised.

The governor believes that connecting the two islands by road will have a significant "multiplier effect" for his province, which is home to Batam, Bintan and Karimun, a free-trade zone collectively known among businessmen in Indonesia and Singapore as BBK.

"The Batam-Bintan bridge will certainly have a positive impact... and it will spur economic growth," said Mr Nurdin, adding that increased connectivity would be good for tourism as well.

Batam is home to about 1.2 million people with many working in heavy industries.

Its lower costs have attracted many Singapore firms and Mr Nurdin said he would be pleased to have investors from Singapore playing a part in the Batam-Bintan bridge.

Bintan's population is about 400,000.

"If Singapore is interested it is even better, because the country is closer to the project," he added.

Commenting on Indonesia and Singapore marking 50 years of bilateral relations next month, Mr Nurdin said: "Our friendship has reached 50 years. We hope for even stronger friendship going forward.

"If Singapore progresses, we would also progress with them… We don't see them as a competitor."


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Jacobs Engineering to boost government business with CH2M buy

CH2M Chairman and CEO Jacqueline Hinman and Jacobs Chairman and CEO Steve Demetriou talk with CH2M

The Denver Post

source Environment Analyst

Jacobs to Acquire CH2M to Create Premier $15 Billion Global Solutions Provider

edited by kcontents

AUGUST 2, 2017

(Reuters) - Jacobs Engineering Group Inc (JEC.N), which designs highways, bridges and airports, said it would buy rival CH2M Hill Cos Ltd in a $3.27 billion cash-and-stock deal to bolster its reach in the high-margin government services and infrastructure sectors.

Jacobs' shares rose as much as 2.4 percent to $54.50 in morning trading on Wednesday.

The deal comes at a time when construction and engineering companies in the United States are expected to benefit from President Donald Trump's proposed $1 trillion infrastructure-spending plan. (

Dallas, Texas-based Jacobs has a dominant presence in the petroleum and chemicals sector, where it provides consulting, engineering, maintenance and project management services.

Jacobs also provides construction, nuclear and technical support services to the aerospace and defense sectors.

Englewood, Colorado-based CH2M Hill, a leader in the infrastructure and government service sectors, including water, transportation, environmental and nuclear, had a trailing 12-month revenue of $4.4 billion, Jacobs said.

The deal would more than double Jacobs' revenue from its buildings and infrastructure business.

About 60 percent of the equity value of the $2.85 billion deal would be paid in cash, and 40 percent in Jacobs' common stock, the company said.

Jacobs said it would finance the cash portion of the deal with cash on hand, borrowings under its existing revolving credit facility and $1.2 billion new debt arranged by BNP Paribas and the Bank of Nova Scotia.

The deal would add about 15 percent to Jacobs' adjusted earnings per share and 25 percent to its adjusted cash earnings in the first full year, following its close in December 2017.

Jacobs said it would be able to save $150 million in costs by the end of the second year.

CH2M stockholders would own 15 percent of Jacobs' shares.

Perella Weinberg Partners LP and Morgan Stanley and Co LLC served as financial advisers to Jacobs, while BofA Merrill Lynch and Credit Suisse advised CH2M.

Reporting by Ankit Ajmera and Arunima Banerjee in Bengaluru; Editing by Saumyadeb Chakrabarty and Martina D'Couto



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SCE&G, Santee Cooper abandon nuclear power project


Santee Cooper, SCE&G abandon unfinished nuclear project after 9 years of work  source thestate

JULY 31, 2017 

COLUMBIA, SC After working nine years to expand a nuclear power plant in South Carolina, Santee Cooper and SCE&G said Monday they are pulling out of the $14 billion reactor project in Fairfield County in the wake of rising costs, falling demand for energy, construction delays and the bankruptcy of lead contractor Westinghouse.

SCE&G said in a news release that a comprehensive review of the Fairfield County nuclear project — a review that began after Westinghouse filed for bankruptcy earlier this year — caused the company to conclude that finishing the two nuclear reactors “would be prohibitively expensive.”

The end of the project is likely to cost thousands of workers their jobs and leave customers wondering if they will be reimbursed for the money they already have spent on the effort. SCE&G customers have paid $1.4 billion through higher monthly utility bills as a result of nine different rate increases.

Both SCE&G and Santee Cooper, which have faced withering criticism over rate increases for the project, said they would work to hold down future rate hikes. But they stopped short of pledging to cut power bills for customers as politicians from Fairfield County blasted them for abandoning the project.

Overall, SCE&G and Santee Cooper have spent about $9 billion on a project that analysts said could have ultimately cost more than $23 billion, more than twice the original price tag. Under a state law passed 10 years ago, SCE&G was allowed to charge customers for the work before the reactors were finished. About 18 percent of an SCE&G customer’s bill goes for the nuclear project.

“Customers have had a tough time with this the last several years,’’ Jimmy Addison, chief financial officer of SCANA, SCE&G’s parent corporation, said during a call with investors. “Our intention is to stay away from any kind of increases on the back of this and on customers’ bills.’’

Lonnie Carter, chief executive of Santee Cooper, said nearly $1 billion pledged to Santee Cooper by the Toshiba Corp., Westinghouse’s parent, could be used to offset future rate increases that would have been assessed to pay for the project. The question is whether Toshiba, itself in financial trouble, can make good on the pledge, Carter said. Toshiba pledged $1.1 billion last week to SCE&G that the investor owned utility also said it would use to keep customer rates down.

“It wouldn’t be a direct rebate; they would actually just see it in their power bills through lower costs,’’ Carter said.

Kevin Marsh, chief executive of SCANA, said in a news release that several factors beyond the company’s control have changed since the construction project was launched, including the Westinghouse bankruptcy. SCE&G had considered building just one of the reactors, but rejected that plan after Santee Cooper withdrew from the effort to build the reactors at the V.C. Summer nuclear station northwest of Columbia.

When Santee Cooper let SCE&G know it would pull out, Marsh said, the project could not go forward. His company “reached out to a couple of utilities’’ to take Santee Cooper’s place, but had no luck, he said.

“We arrived at this very difficult but necessary decision following months of evaluating the project from all perspectives,” Marsh said.

Santee Cooper officials said the project had been delayed by the inability to get major construction pieces on time, as well as problems dealing with Westinghouse. The state-owned utility blamed much of the project’s troubles on Westinghouse. Those troubles contributed to the project costing Santee Cooper 75 percent more than originally forecast and delaying its completion by four years, the state utility said.

Santee Cooper also said falling demand for energy made the need for the two reactors less urgent.

“The winds of time .... have certainly changed the way that the world looks today for completing these units,’’Carter said. “We are disappointed that our contractor has not fulfilled their obligations to us.’’

Carter said the federal government should consider helping to build nuclear power plants if federal officials believe atomic energy is worthwhile to pursue. As it stands, Santee Cooper may have to eventually use a coal-fired power plant that the company had mothballed to reduce the amount of carbon released and comply with Obama administration initiatives, Carter said.


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Alphabet Wants to Fix Renewable Energy’s Storage Problem — With Salt

The latest idea from the X ‘moonshot factory’ is code named Malta

By Mark Bergen

2017년 7월 31일 

A representation of Malta’s grid-scale energy storage technology (Source: X) 

Alphabet Inc.'s secretive X skunk works has another idea that could save the world. This one, code named Malta, involves vats of salt and antifreeze. 

The research lab, which hatched Google's driverless car almost a decade ago, is developing a system for storing renewable energy that would otherwise be wasted. It can be located almost anywhere, has the potential to last longer than lithium-ion batteries and compete on price with new hydroelectric plants and other existing clean energy storage methods, according to X executives and researchers.

The previously undisclosed initiative is part of a handful of energy projects at X, which has a mixed record with audacious "moonshots" like Google Glass and drone delivery. Venture capitalists, and increasingly governments, have cut funding and support for technology and businesses built around alternatives to fossil fuels. X's clean-energy projects have yet to become hits like its driverless cars, but the lab isn't giving up. 

"If the moonshot factory gives up on a big, important problem like climate change, then maybe it will never get solved," said Obi Felten, a director at X. "If we do start solving it, there are trillions and trillions of dollars in market opportunity."

She runs The Foundry, where a Malta team of fewer than 10 researchers is testing a stripped-down prototype. This is the part of X that tries to turn experiments in science labs into full-blown projects with emerging business models, such as its Loon internet-beaming high-altitude balloons. Malta is not yet an official X project, but it has been "de-risked" enough that the team is now looking for partners to build, operate and connect a commercial-sized prototype to the grid, Felten said. That means Alphabet may team up or compete with industrial powerhouses like Siemens AG, ABB Ltd. and General Electric Co.

X is stepping into a market that could see about $40 billion in investment by 2024, according Bloomberg New Energy Finance. Roughly 790 megawatts of energy were stored last year and overall capacity is expected to hit 45 gigawatts in seven years, BNEF estimates. Existing electrical grids struggle with renewable energy, a vexing problem that's driving demand for new storage methods. Solar panels and wind farms churn out energy around midday and at night when demand lulls. This forces utilities to discard it in favor of more predictable oil and coal plants and more controllable natural gas "peaker" plants. 

In the first half of this year, California tossed out more than 300,000 megawatts produced by solar panels and wind farms because there's no good way to store it. That's enough to power tens of thousands of homes. About 4 percent of all wind energy from Germany was jettisoned in 2015, according to Bloomberg New Energy Finance. China throws out more than 17 percent.

Felten is particularly excited about working with companies in China, a voracious energy consumer -- and a country where almost all Google web services are banned. Before that happens, the Malta team has to turn what is now an early test prototype in a warehouse in Silicon Valley into a final product that can be manufactured and is big and reliable enough for utilities to plug it into electricity grids. 

In renderings, viewed by Bloomberg News, the system looks like a miniature power plant with four cylindrical tanks connected via pipes to a heat pump. X says it can vary in size from roughly the dimensions of a large garage to a full-scale traditional power plant, providing energy on demand to huge industrial facilities, data centers or storage for small wind farms and solar installations. 

The system mixes an established technique with newly designed components. "Think of this, at a very simple level, as a fridge and a jet," said Julian Green, the product manager for Malta.

Two tanks are filled with salt, and two are filled with antifreeze or a hydrocarbon liquid. The system takes in energy in the form of electricity and turns it into separate streams of hot and cold air. The hot air heats up the salt, while the cold air cools the antifreeze, a bit like a refrigerator. The jet engine part: Flip a switch and the process reverses. Hot and cold air rush toward each other, creating powerful gusts that spin a turbine and spit out electricity when the grid needs it. Salt maintains its temperature well, so the system can store energy for many hours, and even days, depending on how much you insulate the tanks.

Scientists have already proven this as a plausible storage technique. Malta's contribution was to design a system that operates at lower temperatures so it doesn't require specialized, expensive ceramics and steels. "The thermodynamic physics are well-known to anyone who studied it enough in college," Green said. "The trick is doing it at the right temperatures, with cheap materials. That is super compelling."

The Malta team at workSource: X

X declined to share exactly how cheap its materials are. Thermal salt-based storage has the potential to be several times cheaper than lithium-ion batteries and other existing grid-scale storage technologies, said Raj Apte, Malta's head engineer. German engineering firm Siemens is also developing storage systems using salt for its solar-thermal plants. 

But lithium-ion battery prices are falling quickly, according to Bloomberg New Energy Finance. And Malta must contend with low oil and natural gas prices, a market reality that's wiped out several companies working on alternatives to fossil fuels. "It could potentially compete with lithium-ion," said Bloomberg New Energy Finance analyst Yayoi Sekine. "But there are a lot of challenges that an emerging technology has to face." 

One hurdle is convincing energy incumbents to put capital into a project with potential returns many years down the road. Alphabet has the balance sheet to inspire confidence, with $95 billion in cash and equivalents. Yet the tech giant has a recent history of retreating from or shutting experimental projects that stray from its core areas of high-power computing and software. 

Robert Laughlin, a Nobel prize-winning physicist whose research laid the foundation for Malta, is now a consultant on the project. He met X representatives at a conference a few years ago. They discussed the idea, and the lab ultimately decided to fund the project and build a small team to execute it. Laughin has signed off on the team's designs, and he said his theories have been working with the prototype.

Laughlin believes X is more committed than previous potential backers. He first pitched the idea as his own startup, taking it to luminary tech investors including Khosla Ventures and Peter Thiel's Founders Fund. They passed, according to the scientist, because they didn't want to deal with the tougher demands of a conservative energy industry that will have to buy and use the system in the end. "What we're talking about here is engines and oil companies -- big dinosaurs with very long teeth," said Laughlin. That's "above the pay grade of people out here." A representative from Founders Fund declined to comment. Khosla didn't respond to requests for comment.

X won't say how much it has invested so far, but it's enough for Laughlin. "A blessing came out of the sky," he said. "X came in and took a giant bite out of this problem."


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China’s ageing solar panels are going to be a big environmental problem

The issue of how to dispose of hazardous waste from ageing panels casts a shadow over the drive towards renewable energy and away from fossil fuels

UPDATED : Sunday, 30 July, 2017, 10:12pm

Stephen Chen

China will have the world’s worst problem with ageing solar panels in less than two decades, according to a recent industry estimate.

Lu Fang, secretary general of the photovoltaics decision in the China Renewable Energy Society, wrote in an article circulating on mainland social media this month that the country’s cumulative capacity of retired panels would reach up to 70 gigawatts (GW) by 2034.

That is three times the scale of the Three Gorges Dam, the world’s largest hydropower project, by power production.

By 2050 these waste panels would add up to 20 million tonnes, or 2,000 times the weight of the Eiffel Tower, according to Lu.

“In fair weather, prepare for foul,” she warned.

Lu could not be immediately reached for comment. A staff member from the society, which was formerly known as the Chinese Solar Energy Society, confirmed that the figures were in a report presented by Lu at an industrial conference in Xian, Shaanxi in May.

China currently hosts the world’s largest number of solar power plants with a total capacity of close to 80GW last year, according to the International Energy Agency. The installation in China is nearly twice the amount of the US.

Nearly half of the nation’s total capacity was added last year. Industrial experts have also predicted that new solar farms completed this year will exceed 2016’s record, according to Bloomberg.

China has the world’s largest number of solar power plants, with a capacity of almost 80GW. 

This neck-breaking pace was driven by government’s drive to diversify the country’s energy supply structure, which at present relies heavily on fossil fuels such as coal and imported oil.

But the solar plants are relatively short-lived, and the government does not have any retirement plan for them yet.

A panel’s lifespan ranges from 20 to 30 years, depending on the environment in which they are used, according to the US Department of Energy. High temperatures can accelerate the ageing process for solar cells, while other negative factors – such as the weight of snow or dust storms – could cause material fatigue on the surface and internal electric circuits, gradually reducing the panel’s power output.



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Michael Gove’s green dream: like Brexit, the reality awaits

Gove’s vision for the environment is undoubtedly ambitious but it is at odds with much government action – making it real will be a gargantuan task

Gove speaking at the WWF Living Planet Centre in Woking, where said that Brexit gives scope for Britain to be 

a global leader in green policy. Photograph: Steve Parsons/PA

Damian Carrington Environment editor


Friday 21 July 2017 15.39 BST Last modified on Friday 21 July 2017 15.40 BST

Who knew? Environment secretary Michael Gove, arch Brexiter and seen just months ago grinning and thumbs up in eco-villain Donald Trump’s lair, turns out to be – in words, at least – a deep green.

His first major speech railed against “corporate greed and devil-take-the-hindmost individualism”, “extractive and exploitative political systems” and the “selfish agenda” of vested interests.

Gove blasted the EU farm subsidy system that puts “resources in the hands of the already wealthy” landowners but praised the EU’s green protections as a “force for good”. The UK, he said, should be the global “home of the highest environmental standards” and green action “central to our national mission”, for both the intrinsic beauty of nature and the prosperity of the economy. Otherwise, Gove said starkly, we face “disaster”.

A future trade deal with the US must not compromise high environmental or animal welfare standards, he said. Instead, he turned on Trump, “deeply regretting” the US president’s abandoning of the Paris climate change deal and saying “the world’s second biggest generator of carbon emissions can’t simply walk out of the room when the heat is on”.

Green NGOs, so used to being at loggerheads with Conservative environment secretaries, swooned. The “Green Brexit” vision was ambitious and Gove was listening intently, they said. The education “blob” may have been his enemy, but the green blob might be his new best friend.

But like Brexit itself, turning Gove’s dream into a reality will be a gargantuan task. Reinventing the £3bn-a-year farming subsidy regime to reward public goods such as nature, flood protection and soil would tax any government by itself, as the inability even to pay out the EU subsidies on time shows.

Gove admitted that a new fisheries policy would involve “granting access to other countries”, promising very choppy political waters ahead. Promised action to slash plastic pollution will be left strewn on the path of good intentions without radical action to attack a fiendishly complex issue.

Tackling air pollution from diesel vehicles – which Gove wrongly blamed on the EU: national agencies are the regulators – will require facing down the vested interest of the car makers, something ministers have shown zero appetite for so far.

Even as Gove delivered his eloquent words, government action is undermining them. Gove said Brexit gives the opportunity to create “more rigorous and more responsive institutions” than the European commission and the European court of justice that enable the public to hold the government to account on the environment. Yet on Wednesday the government was in court being sued over its changes to legal costs rules which make it much harder to bring environmental cases.

As Gove promised to take on vested interests, the government gave a £130m bung to the most polluting industries, shifting those costs of supporting new clean energy on to the public. He promised to meet the government’s target of planting 11 million trees, but the government is woefully behind with England quite possibly losing not gaining trees.

Can Gove deliver his grand green vision? As he cheerfully admitted himself, the government’s long-awaited 25-year environment plan has already been “longer in gestation than a baby elephant”. Furthermore, the recent Queen’s speech contained no environmental legislation, only bills for agriculture and fisheries.

Nonetheless, Gove’s speech was important, rightly placing the environment at the heart of the nation’s and the world’s wellbeing, prosperity and security. After the vacuum presided over by his predecessors, the unengaged Andrea Leadsom and the anonymous Liz Truss, there is a vision that matches the great challenge. The bar has been set very high and Gove’s ability to leap it matters to us all.


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Watch a Beautifully Executed Demolition of Century Old Asbestos-Filled Smoke Stack
July 28, 2017 /Shane Hedmond


 via Youtube

Smoke stack demolitions are always fun to watch because they typically stand much taller than the buildings surrounding them, giving cameras great views of the carnage. They don’t always go well, like when a 2.6 million pound brick stack fell directly on top of an excavator (the operator was fine, by the way), but they’re always dramatic.


Both smoke stacks at the Sappi Paper Mill in Muskegon, Michigan were supposed to be demolished at the same time, but plans changed after one required an emergency demolition due to its poor condition.  To add to the interest, the crumbling smoke stack was also glazed with a material that contained 2 to 3 percent asbestos, according to MLive.



Because the asbestos could not be abated before the demolition, extra precautions had to be taken.  Not only was the building and surrounding area continuously sprayed with water before and after the initial implosion, but the stack was directed towards a pond of water, all to reduce the amount of airborne dust. Members of the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) were also on-site to monitor the air quality inside a 1,000 foot perimeter set up around the stack.


All of the estimated 685 cubic feet of debris had to be wrapped and transported to a landfill in Coopersville, Michigan.  Soil testing will also be carried out by the DEQ to determine if any soil needs removed.  As for the second smoke stack, asbestos will be abated prior to that demolition, which is expected to happen in the fall.


The video below was captured by a 4K camera by the City of Muskegon for your viewing pleasure.  I chose to start the video at 1:30 in, as the implosion and collapse happens soon after.





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Three state-of-the-art technologies blend to create remarkable structures

July 27, 2017

During the 20th annual Barcelona Building Construmat last May, the Institute for Advanced Architecture of Catalonia (IAAC) demonstrated its On Site Robotics project to show how 3D printing, drones and robotics mesh together in construction.

The On Site Robotics project uses cable-driven robots, similar to those used to record football games, to do the 3D printing. The drones are fitted with cameras that monitor the construction site to measure how quickly the printed structures are drying.

It's an elegant process. Watch it here:


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Sono Motors is Presenting the Solar Car "Sion" in Munich for the First Time

MUNICH, July 27, 2017 /PRNewswire/ --

Sono Motors' Solar Powered Car source Pinterest

edited by kcontents

During their release event, the startup Sono Motors presented its solar car Sion. More than 700 guests from politics, industry and the press were invited.

The Sion has a range of 250km and retails at 16,000 €, without battery. The battery can either be purchased in a one-time transaction of less than 4,000 €, or at a monthly rent. Due to the comparatively low price, the car is intended to make electro mobility suitable for everyday use. Due to its special features, the Sion is particularly appealing to families and urban commuters.

Special is also the self-charging system, called viSono (from "Vision"). Through integrated solar cells, electricity is generated and charged into the battery, reaching up to 30 free kilometers per day.

According to the company, the "biSono" system (from "bi-directional") is another important feature. It allows the vehicle's battery not only to be charged, but also supply energy, making the Sion a mobile power-station. With an output of 6.6 kW, even other electric cars can be charged.

Sono Motors sees the future of mobility in various sharing options. The Sion will therefore be equipped with three different mobility-services: powerSharing, carSharing and rideSharing.

Via a smart phone app, car rides and electricity can be offered to other users. In addition, it is possible to lend the Sion to other users, for a certain time period.

After the release event, Sono Motors will start a test drive tour through Western Europe. Events will take place in 12 cities and 6 countries. The tour will start on the 18th of August in Munich.

Pictures will be available at 23:00 GMT Amsterdam, Berlin under:




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Korean firm eyes a stake in the Horizon nuclear power plant in Wales

The 5.4 megawatt Horizon station would provide electricity for about 10m homes in the UK (Source: Getty)

edited by kcontents

Sunday 23 July 2017

Courtney Goldsmith

A Korean state-owned company is said to be in early talks to buy a stake in the £10bn Horizon nuclear power plant in Wales.

Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power (KHNP) is eyeing a slice of the nuclear plant on Anglesey, which is being developed by the Japanese firm Hitachi, the Sunday Times has reported.

The move is the latest development for Britain's new generation of power stations, which have faced mounting concerns as costs swell and delays put the UK's energy supply at risk.

KHNP, a subsidiary of Korea Electric Power Corporation (Kepco), is likely to invest in Horizon as a minority shareholder along with the governments of Japan and Britain.

The firm is understood to be hiring advisers in the UK.

A Horizon spokesperson said:

We have always been clear that we are looking to bring other investors into Horizon.

Based on the strengths of our project, we are in positive discussions with a number of parties but we will not be commenting on the process whilst it is ongoing.

The 5.4 megawatt power station would provide electricity for about 10m homes in the UK.

Meanwhile, Kepco is in talks to buy a stake in troubled Japanese conglomerate Toshiba's huge NuGen nuclear plant in Moorside, Cumbria.

KHNP could not be reached for comment.


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